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Object-Oriented Programming UPD



Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer programming model that organizes software design around data, or objects, rather than functions and logic. An object can be defined as a data field that has unique attributes and behavior.




Object-Oriented Programming



OOP focuses on the objects that developers want to manipulate rather than the logic required to manipulate them. This approach to programming is well-suited for programs that are large, complex and actively updated or maintained. This includes programs for manufacturing and design, as well as mobile applications; for example, OOP can be used for manufacturing system simulation software.


The organization of an object-oriented program also makes the method beneficial to collaborative development, where projects are divided into groups. Additional benefits of OOP include code reusability, scalability and efficiency.


While Simula is credited as being the first object-oriented programming language, many other programming languages are used with OOP today. But some programming languages pair with OOP better than others. For example, programming languages considered pure OOP languages treat everything as objects. Other programming languages are designed primarily for OOP, but with some procedural processes included.


The object-oriented programming model has been criticized by developers for multiple reasons. The largest concern is that OOP overemphasizes the data component of software development and does not focus enough on computation or algorithms. Additionally, OOP code may be more complicated to write and take longer to compile.


Most advanced programming languages enable developers to combine models, because they can be used for different programming methods. For example, JavaScript can be used for OOP and functional programming.


If you've never used an object-oriented programming language before, you'll need to learn a few basic concepts before you can begin writing any code. This lesson will introduce you to objects, classes, inheritance, interfaces, and packages. Each discussion focuses on how these concepts relate to the real world, while simultaneously providing an introduction to the syntax of the Java programming language.


Inheritance provides a powerful and natural mechanism for organizing and structuring your software. This section explains how classes inherit state and behavior from their superclasses, and explains how to derive one class from another using the simple syntax provided by the Java programming language.


Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm fundamental to many programming languages, including Java and C++. In this article, we'll provide an overview of the basic concepts of OOP. We'll describe three main concepts: classes and instances, inheritance, and encapsulation. For now, we'll describe these concepts without reference to JavaScript in particular, so all the examples are given in pseudocode.


After that, in JavaScript, we'll look at how constructors and the prototype chain relate to these OOP concepts, and how they differ. In the next article, we'll look at some additional features of JavaScript that make it easier to implement object-oriented programs.


Object-oriented programming is about modeling a system as a collection of objects, where each object represents some particular aspect of the system. Objects contain both functions (or methods) and data. An object provides a public interface to other code that wants to use it but maintains its own private, internal state; other parts of the system don't have to care about what is going on inside the object.


Second, although a prototype chain looks like an inheritance hierarchy and behaves like it in some ways, it's different in others. When a subclass is instantiated, a single object is created which combines properties defined in the subclass with properties defined further up the hierarchy. With prototyping, each level of the hierarchy is represented by a separate object, and they are linked together via the __proto__ property. The prototype chain's behavior is less like inheritance and more like delegation. Delegation is a programming pattern where an object, when asked to perform a task, can perform the task itself or ask another object (its delegate) to perform the task on its behalf. In many ways, delegation is a more flexible way of combining objects than inheritance (for one thing, it's possible to change or completely replace the delegate at run time).


Put another way, object-oriented programming is an approach for modeling concrete, real-world things, like cars, as well as relations between things, like companies and employees, students and teachers, and so on. OOP models real-world entities as software objects that have some data associated with them and can perform certain functions.


Another common programming paradigm is procedural programming, which structures a program like a recipe in that it provides a set of steps, in the form of functions and code blocks, that flow sequentially in order to complete a task.


The key takeaway is that objects are at the center of object-oriented programming in Python, not only representing the data, as in procedural programming, but in the overall structure of the program as well.


Methods like .__init__() and .__str__() are called dunder methods because they begin and end with double underscores. There are many dunder methods that you can use to customize classes in Python. Although too advanced a topic for a beginning Python book, understanding dunder methods is an important part of mastering object-oriented programming in Python.


In this tutorial, you learned about object-oriented programming (OOP) in Python. Most modern programming languages, such as Java, C#, and C++, follow OOP principles, so the knowledge you gained here will be applicable no matter where your programming career takes you.


In object-oriented languages such as C++, one can define classes that contain both data and methods which operate on that data. One can then create separate instances of the class, each with its own data. A method called from an instance of the class will work on the data held by that particular instance.


Note that we have changed the dummy parameters from type(Circle) to class(Circle). We can then call the class functions in an object-oriented fashion as a = c%area and call c%print, where the type is passed to the first argument of the functions circle_area and circle_print automatically. See Metcalf, Reid, and Cohen (2004, p. 279) for additional information.


OOPs refers to Object-Oriented Programming. It is the programming paradigm that is defined using objects. Objects can be considered as real-world instances of entities like class, that have some characteristics and behaviors.


The programming languages that use and follow the Object-Oriented Programming paradigm or OOPs, are known as Object-Oriented Programming languages. Some of the major Object-Oriented Programming languages include:


Now, these paradigms can be further classified based:1. Imperative Programming Paradigm: Imperative programming focuses on HOW to execute program logic and defines control flow as statements that change a program state. This can be further classified as:a) Procedural Programming Paradigm: Procedural programming specifies the steps a program must take to reach the desired state, usually read in order from top to bottom.b) Object-Oriented Programming or OOP: Object-oriented programming (OOP) organizes programs as objects, that contain some data and have some behavior.c) Parallel Programming: Parallel programming paradigm breaks a task into subtasks and focuses on executing them simultaneously at the same time.2. Declarative Programming Paradigm: Declarative programming focuses on WHAT to execute and defines program logic, but not a detailed control flow. Declarative paradigm can be further classified into:a) Logical Programming Paradigm: Logical programming paradigm is based on formal logic, which refers to a set of sentences expressing facts and rules about how to solve a problemb) Functional Programming Paradigm: Functional programming is a programming paradigm where programs are constructed by applying and composing functions.c) Database Programming Paradigm: Database programming model is used to manage data and information structured as fields, records, and files. 041b061a72


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